When the Protestants assumed power in 1578, Roman Catholics lost control of their churches. The first church of St. Nicholas, the oldest building in Amsterdam (ca 1300), was renamed the Oude Kerk and Catholics were forced into hiding. For over 200 years they worshipped in hidden churches; the largest was the second Church of St Nicholas, known as Ons' Lieve Heer o Solder (Our Lord in the Attic).
In 1795 Catholics were again allowed to build churches. This new church of St Nicholas (Sint-Nicolaaskerk / St. Nicolaas binnen de Veste; St Nicolas inside the Walls) was consecrated in 1887. The neo-Baroque church was restored inside and out in 1999. The church was elevated to the status of a basilica minor in 2012.